There are four types of headache: vascular, muscle contraction (tension), traction, and inflammatory. The most common type of vascular headache is migraine. Migraine headaches are usually characterized by severe pain on one or both sides of the head, an upset stomach, and, at times, disturbed vision. Women are more likely than men to have migraine headaches. After migraine, the most common type of vascular headache is the toxic headache produced by fever. Other kinds of vascular headaches include "cluster” headaches, which cause repeated episodes of intense pain, and headaches resulting from high blood pressure. Muscle contraction headaches appear to involve the tightening or tensing of facial and neck muscles. Traction and inflammatory headaches are symptoms of other disorders, ranging from stroke to sinus infection. Like other types of pain, headaches can serve as warning signals of more serious disorders. This is particularly true for headaches caused by inflammation, including those related to meningitis as well as those resulting from diseases of the sinuses, spine, neck, ears, and teeth.

When headaches occur three or more times a month, preventive treatment is usually recommended. Drug therapy, biofeedback training, stress reduction, and elimination of certain foods from the diet are the most common methods of preventing and controlling migraine and other vascular headaches. Regular exercise, such as swimming or vigorous walking, can also reduce the frequency and severity of migraine headaches. Drug therapy for migraine is often combined with biofeedback and relaxation training. One of the most commonly used drugs for the relief of migraine symptoms is sumatriptan. Drugs used to prevent migraine also include methysergide maleate, which counteracts blood vessel constriction; propranolol hydrochloride, which also reduces the frequency and severity of migraine headaches; ergotamine tartrate, a vasoconstrictor that helps counteract the painful dilation stage of the headache; amitriptyline, an antidepressant; valproic acid, an anticonvulsant; and verapamil, a calcium channel blocker.

Not all headaches require medical attention. But some types of headache are signals of more serious disorders and call for prompt medical care. These include: sudden, severe headache or sudden headache associated with a stiff neck; h eadaches associated with fever, convulsions, or accompanied by confusion or loss of consciousness; headaches following a blow to the head, or associated with pain in the eye or ear; persistent headache in a person who was previously headache free; and recurring headache in children. Migraine headaches may last a day or more and can strike as often as several times a week or as rarely as once every few years.

Prepared by the National Institutes of Health

Headache Discussions

  1. link Scklilgrl93
    Sharp pains
    Today is Wednesday and I've been experiencing severe headaches since Saturday. Along with it, I have a sore throat and my sinuses are bothering me. I - 14% more...
    Scklilgrl93- over a year ago - 1 Reply - in Headache
  2. link Himrim
    Headache, Anger, Forgetfullness
    I have headache everytime I travel or if I am hungry and don't eat anything. Its more over my eyes and the forehead. I feel feverish when the headache - 64% more...
    Himrim- over a year ago - 2 Replies - in Headache
  3. link Cprophet
    Burning in the back of the head
    My 14 year old daughter has been in the hospital for 3 weeks now! She had a lower lumbar procedure as a rule out for a tumor/swelling of spinal fluide - 81% more...
    Cprophet- over a year ago - 3 Replies - in Headache
  4. link Rand77
    headache pain
    I've been getting headaches since i was young,now am 53. I have been given al kinds of meds. Along with the headaches came depression. Yes, I get thme - 68% more...
    Rand77- over a year ago - in Headache
  5. link Shangwife1
    Dr's Don't Know What the Problem Is!!!
    In April my husband ended up in ER with what Dr's thought was a stroke. Test say it wasn't a stroke. He has a headache 24/7 then he gets a throbbing h - 89% more...
    Shangwife1- over a year ago - 10 Replies - in Headache
  6. link Rosalia
    PLEASE HELP
    I HAVE GOTTEN HEADACHES SINCE I WAS LITTLE OFF AND ON BUT LATELY I HAVE BEEN GETTING THEN EVERY DAY. I HAVE TRYED ALL KIND OF MEDS SOME TIMES THEY WOR - 60% more...
    Rosalia- over a year ago - 2 Replies - in Headache
  7. link Lindan96
    Constant Headache
    Since spring arrived, I have had a continuous headache just above my eyes. I have tried all over the counter meds and have now been put on Alagesic. J - 56% more...
    Lindan96- over a year ago - 1 Reply - in Headache
  8. link Ashley1728
    what to do
    I get headaches almost everyday if not then 4-6 times a week, I have since I was 12 years old and I am now 20 years old.. sometimes they are really re - 76% more...
    Ashley1728- over a year ago - 10 Replies - in Headache
[ Read more Headache posts ]