Lung transplantation is surgery to replace one or both diseased lungs with a healthy lung or lungs from a donor. During the operation, the surgeon makes a cut in the chest and removes the diseased lung. The surgeon then sews the new lung to the main blood vessels and air passage. Your doctor may recommend a lung transplant if you have disease that cannot be controlled any other way. These diseases include COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) Cystic fibrosis Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis Primary pulmonary hypertension Complications of lung transplantation include rejection of the transplanted lung and infection.